wal_level determines how much information is written to the WAL. The default value is
replica, which writes enough data to support WAL archiving and replication, including running read-only queries on a standby server.
minimal removes all logging except the information required to recover from a crash or immediate shutdown. Finally,
logical adds information necessary to support logical decoding. Each level includes the information logged at all lower levels. This parameter can only be set at server start.
minimal level, no information is logged for permanent relations for the remainder of a transaction that creates or rewrites them. This can make operations much faster (see populate-pitr). Operations that initiate this optimization include:
- ALTER ... SET TABLESPACE
- CREATE TABLE
- REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW (without CONCURRENTLY)
replicaor higher must be used to enable WAL archiving (archive_mode) and streaming replication. Note that changing
minimalmakes any base backups taken before unavailable for archive recovery and standby server, which may lead to data loss.
logical level, the same information is logged as with
replica, plus information needed to allow extracting logical change sets from the WAL. Using a level of
logical will increase the WAL volume, particularly if many tables are configured for
REPLICA IDENTITY FULL and many UPDATE and DELETE statements are executed.
In releases prior to 9.6, this parameter also allowed the values
hot_standby. These are still accepted but mapped to
- replay of CREATE TABLESPACE eats data at wal_level=minimal
- Re: Doc about how to set max_wal_senders when setting minimal wal_level
- Re: Make relfile tombstone files conditional on WAL level
- Doc about how to set max_wal_senders when setting minimal wal_level
- Re: Enhance traceability of wal_level changes for backup management